Alexander VII, who as adviser of Innocent X had vigorously advocated the condemnation, confirmed it in 1665 by the Bull "Ad Sacram" declaring that it applied to the aforesaid work of Jansen and to the very meaning intended by him; he also sent to France his famous "formulary", to be signed by all the clergy as a means of detecting and extirpating Jansenism. Maria del Popolo, titular church of more than one of the Chigi cardinals, the Scala Regia, the Chair of St. Peter in the Vatican Basilica, and the great colonnade before that edifice bespeak alike the genius of Bernini and the munificence of his papal patron. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01294a.htm. Ecclesiastical approbation. Inter Caetera – Division of the undiscovered world between Spain and Portugal – May 4, 1493 [Bull] Pope Alexander VII April 7, 1655 to May 22, 1667. In the Rome of Renaissance times, an ancestor of Alexander VII was known as the "Magnificent". (See JANSENIUS.) In 1627 he was appointed by Urban VIII Vice-Legate of Ferrara, and he served five years under the Cardinals Sacchetti and Pallotta, whose commendations won for him the important post of Inquisitor of Malta, together with the episcopal consecration. The inimical relations between Spain and Portugal occasioned by the latter's establishment of independence (1640) were a source of grave trials for Alexander, as for other popes before and after him. In 1662 the equally hostile Duc de Crequi was made ambassador. A seventeenth-century pamphlet credited to Ayres, titled A short Account of the Life and Death of Pope Al… Lucrezia Borgia was an Italian noblewoman and daughter of Pope Alexander VI. In 1639 he was promoted to the nunciature of Cologne; and in 1644 was made envoy extraordinary of Innocent X to the conference of Münster, in which post he energetically defended papal interests during the negotiations that led, in 1648, to the Peace of Westphalia. For a year the hopes of Christendom seemed to be realized. From: 'St. His burden being in this way lightened, he passed much of his time in literary pursuits and in the society of the learned; but the friends whom he favoured were those who could be best relied on as counsellors. Alexander VI, corrupt, wordly, and ambitious pope (1492–1503), whose neglect of the spiritual inheritance of the church contributed to the development of the Protestant Reformation. He sought help from Charles VIII of France (1483–1498), who was allied to Ludovico "Il Moro" (the Moor, so called because of his swarthy complexion) Sforza, the de factoDuke of Milan, who needed French support to legitimise his rule. Pope Alexander VII Gasparo Morone. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Pope Alexander VI was born Rodrigo Borgia in the Spanish town of Xàtiva, near Valencia, in 1431. of the Popes", (German ed., Freiburg, 1895), III, 275-278; also Am. 4. Omissions? Pope Alexander VI. Imprimatur. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. His uncle, Alfonso Borgia, was a cardinal, and his parents decided early in his life that Rodrigo was destined to join his uncle in the Catholic Church. He assisted the Venetians in combating the Turks who had gained a foothold in Crete, and obtained in return the restoration of the Jesuits, exiled from Venice since 1606. In this era, it wasn’t too scandalous for high-ranking church officials to … She was trapped by a complicated network of falsehoods into withdrawing her opposition and so on April 7th, after a conclave which had lasted for eighty days, Chigi became Pope Alexander VII. cit.) Pope Alexander VII - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia Nihil Obstat. Abandoning their support of either pope, they called a council at Pisa in 1409, where they deposed both the Roman and Avignonese claimants and elected a third, Alexander V, who established the papal throne at Pisa. MLA citation. Anacletus, 77–78. Fabio Chigi was born at Siena in 1599, the son of a distinguished family of bankers. In The Rhetoric Fiction, Wayne Booth (1961, ed. 365). The conclave believed he was strongly opposed to the nepotism then prevalent. . A notorious reputation precedes her, and she is inextricably, … Pope Alexander VII Alexander VII was the 237th person to lead the Catholic Church and the seventh among them to take the papal name of Alexander. They were also sensitive, inspired, and highly accomplished poets. Sixtus I, 115–25? When Innocent X died, Chigi, the candidate favoured by Spain, was elected pope after eighty days in the conclave, on 7 April 1655, taking the name of Alexander VII.. Nepotism. Peter's - Guide to the Basilica and Square' Opposite and on the right, is the famous monument of Alexander VII (1655-1667), the last great masterpiece of the … New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. He Kept Multiple Mistresses. [For details of the conclave see Pastor, "Hist. The decorations of the church of Sta. "Pope Alexander VII." Evaristus, 97–105. That he obtained the papacy through simony was the general belief (Pastor, loc. Peterson, J.B. (1907). The Metropolitan Museum of Art New York City, United States. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. APA citation. (20 November 1493; manuscript) Treaty Between Spain and Portugal, Concluded at Alcacovas (4 September 1479; English translation) Tratado de Tordesilhas Cath. This article intends to distinguish him from the many other men to have donned the crown and vestments of his title in the hope that the information will better stand out in the mind of its audience. The infamous Borgias were Spanish nobles who attained power and wealth in Spain and across the Italian peninsula during the Renaissance by securing high-ranking civic and ecclesiastical offices. Pope Alexander VI: The Papal bull Inter Caetera (4 May 1493; Translation) Columbus Manuscript; Christopher Columbus describes the new lands he has discovered. Pope Alexander VII Era: 1655-1667. The latter owed much also to his mother, a woman of singular power and skill in the formation of youth. Secretary of state to Pope Innocent X in 1651 and made cardinal in 1652, Chigi was elected pope on April 7. (See SARPI, VENICE.) Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Chigi of Sienna were among the most illustrious and powerful of Italian families. The princes, however, were tired of war and, despite his admonition, yielded to France and the Protestants. The decree asserts the rights of Spain and Portugal to colonize, convert, and enslave. of the Popes", (German ed., Freiburg, 1895), III, 275-278; also Am. During this time period, a life as a Catholic priest was considered to be an excellent career move for young men regardless of their personal piety. His own sanctity of life, severity of morals, and aversion to luxury made more resplendent his virtues and talents. Title: Pope Alexander VII; Creator: Gasparo Morone; Date Created: 17th century; Source(s): c2+: CB; b: The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, 19 Feb 1652 Borgia, by a bare two-thirds majority secured by his own vote, was proclaimed Pope on the morning of 11 Aug., 1492, and took the name of Alexander VI. He also made extensive additions to the Vatican Library. Cath. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only $19.99... Fabio Chigi, born at Sienna, 13 February, 1599; elected 7 April, 1655; died at Rome, 22 May, 1667. Houses were levelled to make way for straighter streets and broad piazzas, the Collegio Romano. Alexander VII: Alexander Septimus: Fabio Chigi: Siena, Tuscany, Italy 20 June 1667 to 9 December 1669 Clement IX: Clemens Nonus: Giulio Rospigliosi Pistoia, Tuscany, Italy 29 April 1670 to 22 July 1676 Clement X: Clemens Decimus: Emilio Altieri Rome, Italy 21 September 1676 to 11/12 August 1689 Innocent XI Blessed Innocent Innocentius Undecimus This is an incomplete list of papal bulls, listed by the year in which each was issued.. His pontificate was marked by several disputes; he confirmed the condemnation of Jansenism but supported the Jesuits, allowing them to use Chinese rites for their mission work in China. Emboldened by these triumphs, the French Jansenists, who recognized in Alexander an old enemy, became insolently assertive, professing that the propositions condemned in 1653 were not to be found in the "Augustinus" of Cornelius Jansen. [For details of the conclave see Pastor, "Hist. Alexander VII, who as adviser of Innocent X had vigorously advocated the condemnation, confirmed it in 1665 by the Bull "Ad Sacram" declaring that it applied to the aforesaid work of Jansen and to the very meaning intended by him; he also sent to France his famous "formulary", to be signed by all the clergy as a means of detecting and extirpating Jansenism. His tomb by Bernini is one of the most beautiful monuments in St. Peter's. Innocent X called him to Rome in 1651 to be his secretary of state, and in February, 1652, made him Cardinal. Alexander VII did much to beautify Rome. His reign is memorable in the annals of moral theology for the condemnation of a number of erroneous propositions. Alexander VII died at age 66 from kidney failure. Fabio Chigi, born at Sienna, 13 February, 1599; elected 7 April, 1655; died at Rome, 22 May, 1667.The Chigi of Sienna were among the most illustrious and powerful of Italian families.In the Rome of Renaissance times, an ancestor of Alexander VII was known as the "Magnificent". New York: Robert Appleton Company. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. 2. He was successively inquisitor at Malta, vice-legate at Ferrara, and nuncio in Cologne (1639-51). Due to poor health that began in infancy he was educated primarily at home, first by his mother and subsequently by tutors. Linus, 67–76? Urban VIII and Alexander VII each occupied the papal throne during the seventeenth century, and were munificent and discriminating patrons of the arts, as well as men of conspicuous erudition and imagination. Details. Transcription. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Alexander VI and his son Cesare Borgia emerged as two of the most feared and hated figures in Italy during the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, leading some to believe Pope Alexander VI's cause of death was assassination. Birthplace: Játiva, Spain Location of death: Rome, Italy Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, . a historical landmark in the Vatican renowned for its use of symmetry, commissioned by Pope Alexander VII to celebrate the feast of St. Corpus Christi "Burghers of Calais," 1886 Auguste Rodin, Displayed on … 6943005, citing Santa Maria in Monserrato degli Spagnoli, Rome, Città Metropolitana di Roma Capitale, Lazio, Italy ; Maintained by Find A Grave . +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. His pursuit of political goals and unremitting efforts to aggrandize his family were seen as excessive. Pope Alexander VI made many alliances to secure his position. March 1, 1907. Alexander VII, POPE (FABIO CHIGI), b. at Sienna, February 13, 1599; elected April 7, 1655; d. at Rome, May 22, 1667.The Chigi of Sienna were among the most illustrious and powerful of Italian families. 5. . Alexander VII was the pope who commissioned Bernini to enclose St. Peter's Square with the colonnade. However, he prevented Louis XIV from sending the usual embassy of obedience to Alexander VII, and, while he lived, hindered the appointment of a French ambassador to Rome, diplomatic affairs being meantime conducted by cardinal protectors, generally personal enemies of the Pope. Divided the New World for Portugal, Spain. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Gerard Haffner. Pope Alexander VII Fabio Chigi. AKA Rodrigo de Borja. He kept his coffin in his bedroom, and a skull (carved by famed sculptor Bernini) on his writing table, because he was always aware that he would someday die. During the negotiations leading to the Peace of Westphalia (1648), he refused to deliberate with the Protestant heretics and urged the Catholic princes not to sacrifice the rights of the church. Peterson, John Bertram. Rodrigo Borgia, the baby boy who would become Pope Alexander VI, one of the most infamous Popes of all time, was born in Valencia, Spain on New Year's Day in 1431. Borgia sought to appear as a great Pope, despite his engagement in public lechery, simony, and other forms of corruption. Grandnephew of Pope Paul V, Chigi served the church as vice legate at Ferrara and as nuncio at Cologne (1639–51). As King Ferdinand I of Naples was threatening to come to the aid of the rightful duke Gian Galeazzo, the husband of his granddaughter Isabella, Alexander VI encouraged the French king in his plan for the conquest of N… In his twenty-seventh year, he obtained the doctorates of philosophy, law, and theology in the University of Sienna, and in December, 1626, he entered upon his ecclesiastical career at Rome. 1. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01294a.htm. 1. Corrections? Alexander VI was a pope who lived during the 15 th century, when Italy was experiencing the Renaissance.He is considered to be one of the most controversial popes in the history of the Roman Catholic Church .Instead of focusing on spiritual matters, Alexander was more concerned with material wealth and earthly power. Updates? Download this artwork (provided by The Metropolitan Museum of Art). Contact information. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Alexander VI, given name Rodrigo Borgia, Roman Catholic Pope from 1492 until his death, is the most memorable of the corrupt and secular popes of the Renaissance. This principle received its most famous epigrammatic articulation in Alexander Pope's apothegm from "An Essay on Criticism" (1711) urging that "The sound must seem an echo to the sense" (1. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alexander-VII, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Pope Alexander VII. With their advent came a marked change in the manner of life of the pontiff. In the conclave of 1655, famous for its duration of eighty days, and for the clash of national and factional interests, Cardinal Chigi was unanimously elected Pope. Get the full contents of this website as an instant download made him cardinal subsequently tutors... The Rome of Renaissance times, an ancestor of Alexander VII was general. 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