blockingdiv.id = 'sgt_blocking_layer'; -Webkit-opacity:0; Succinic acid, matrix substance for MALDI-MS, ≥99.5% (T), Ultra pure, PHR1418 Succinic Acid, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material, pH of Succinic Acid. [16] The automotive and electronics industries heavily rely on BDO to produce connectors, insulators, wheel covers, gearshift knobs and reinforcing beams. } [7] The mechanism by which succinate accumulates in immune cells is not fully understood. Succinic acid is byproduct of sugar fermentation, and is present in wines and beer. Succinate requires specific transporters to move through both the mitochondrial and plasma membrane. [7], SUCNR1 is one of the highest expressed G protein-coupled receptors on human platelets, present at levels similar to P2Y12, though the role of succinate signaling in platelet aggregation is debated. [32] The ligand specificity of GPR91 was rigorously tested using 800 pharmacologically active compounds and 200 carboxylic acid and succinate-like compounds, all of which demonstrated significantly lower binding affinity. Biotechnological production of weak organic acids such as succinic acid is most economically advantageous when carried out at low pH. Such reactions are slow in the dry, but systems may absorb water from the air to allow corrosion of iron, steel, and aluminum parts and containers. Succinate thus serves as a direct electron donor to the electron transport chain, and itself is converted into fumarate. [34] 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases require an iron cofactor to catalyze hydroxylations, desaturations and ring closures. Don't you think that succinate will be protonated since the pH=3.3? function hide_f_popup(popupdivname) apopupdiv.style.MozTransition="all 1s ease-in-out"; succinic acid produced using low pH yeast fermentation with direct crystallisation when compared to the use of near neutral pH fermentation. With alcohols (ROH), a similar reaction occurs, delivering the monoester: (CH 2 CO) 2 O + ROH → RO 2 CCH 2 CH 2 CO 2 H Related compounds. sgt_blocking_layer.style.MozOpacity=0; [32] Arg99, His103, Arg252, and Arg281 near the center of the receptor generate a positively charged binding site for succinate. [32] In inflammatory macrophages, succinate-induced stability of HIF1 results in increased transcription of HIF1-dependent genes, including the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. position: fixed; The maximum succinic acid production from the different feedstocks ranged between 21.9 and 47.4 g L-1. The results were obtained by using the laser flash photolysis of hydrogen peroxide to generate the OH radicals, which react with a competitor SCN. var apopupdiv= this.document.getElementById(popupdivname); L'acide succinique est un diacide carboxylique aliphatique, dénommé également acide butane-1,4-dioïque et de formule semi-développée HOOC–CH2–CH2–COOH. In the process of succinic acid removal, pH of the system could also be neutralized. this.document.getElementById('fpu_suggestion_form_div').style.display="inline"; [36] Pathologically elevated levels of succinate lead to hypermethylation, epigenetic silencing and changes in neuroendocrine differentiation, potentially driving cancer formation. [9], Like most simple mono- and dicarboxylic acids, it is not harmful but can be an irritant to skin and eyes. { [11], Genetically engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are proposed for the commercial production via fermentation of glucose. In living organisms, primarily succinate, not succinic acid, is found. The neutralizing ability of the resin as a neutralizing agent has also been studied in the model cycle system and in the real fermentation cycle process. if (fpuchttp.readyState == 4 && fpuchttp.status == 200) It is marketed as food additive E363. 100 mM 10 mM 1 mM. Succinate is one of three oncometabolites, metabolic intermediates whose accumulation causes metabolic and non-metabolic dysregulation implicated in tumorigenesis. This enzyme complex is a 4 subunit membrane-bound lipoprotein which couples the oxidation of succinate to the reduction of ubiquinone via the intermediate electron carriers FAD and three 2Fe-2S clusters. The chemical is also known as “Spirit of Amber.” When it was first discovered, it was extracted from amber by pulverizing and distilling it using a sand bath. We're always adding new substances to the database, and would love to hear your suggestions. Oversuccination occurs when more than one succinate adds to a substrate. function saveData(popupdivname) { Tout savoir sur l'ingrédient cosmétique SUCCINIC ACID (Acide succinique), n° CAS 110-15-6, fonctions (Régulateur de pH, Agent masquant). sgt_blocking_layer.style.zIndex="-100"; [6] It is marketed as food additive E363. [8] ROS then trigger the cellular apoptotic machinery or induce oxidative damage to proteins, membranes, organelles etc. [12] Drugs involving succinate include metoprolol succinate, sumatriptan succinate, Doxylamine succinate or solifenacin succinate. Display Name: Succinic acid EC Number: 203-740-4 EC Name: Succinic acid CAS Number: 110-15-6 Molecular formula: C4H6O4 IUPAC Name: butanedioic acid Subsequently, the primary substrate enters the binding pocket and lastly dioxygen binds to the enzyme-substrate complex. Succinic acid Accession Number DB00139 Description. this.document.body.appendChild(blockingdiv); Titre; Fiche de données de sécurité des matériaux (FDS) Acide succinique Certificats d'analyse. At concentration of 100 mM, it has a pH of 2.61. [23], Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Finally, succinic semialdehyde is oxidized by succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) to form succinate, re-entering the TCA cycle and closing the loop. The name derives from Latin succinum, meaning amber. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. Succinic Acid 99,7. In Health and Personal care. -o-transition: all 1s ease-in-out; Among naturally occurring microorganisms, several bacterial strains are known to produce considerable amounts of succinic acid under anaerobic conditions but they are inefficient in performing the low‐pH fermentation due to their physiological properties. saveData(popupdivname); apopupdiv.style.zIndex='-100'; Since PDHs have an absolute requirement for molecular oxygen, this process is suppressed in hypoxia allowing HIF1α to escape destruction. apopupdiv.style.opacity=0; Under pathological and physiological conditions, the malate-aspartate shuttle or the purine nucleotide shuttle can increase mitochondrial fumarate, which is then readily converted to succinate. [30][32], Extracellular succinate regulates cardiomyocyte viability through GPR91 activation; long-term succinate exposure leads to pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. sgt_blocking_layer.style.display= 'none'; var postparam='fpusuggestions='+encodeURIComponent(convert(document.getElementById("fpusuggestions").value))+'&fpusuggestemail='+encodeURIComponent(convert(document.getElementById("fpusuggestemail").value)); Succinic acid, with its cas register number 110-15-6, has its chemical formula of C4H6O4 and has its other names like Butanedioic acid, Amber acid and 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid. popupdiv.style.WebkitTransition="all 1s ease"; { succinic acid low ph acid production production Prior art date 2008-07-08 Application number PL09779520T Other languages Polish (pl) Inventor Mickel Leonardus August Jansen René Verwaal Original Assignee Dsm Ip Assets B.V. Both sodium and succinic acid can be retained and separated on Primesep 100 column. sgt_blocking_layer.style.opacity=0; RESULTS: The metabolic flux distributions at two time-points of the fermentation process were analyzed. popupdiv.style.MsTransition="all 1s ease"; CAS number. Dehydration of succinic acid gives succinic anhydride. this.document.body.style.overflow="visible"; top:0px; Both anions are colorless and can be isolated as the salts, e.g., Na(CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2) and Na2(CH2)2(CO2)2. [15], Succinic acid is a precursor to some polyesters and a component of some alkyd resins. [40] In spite of a general downregulation of the TCA cycle under these conditions, succinate concentration is increased. Eur. … [26] As such, succinate links TCA cycle dysfunction or metabolic changes to cell-cell communication and to oxidative stress-related responses. A key candidate transporter is INDY (I'm not dead yet), a sodium-independent anion exchanger, which moves both dicarboxylate and citrate into the bloodstream. apopupdiv.style.WebkitOpacity=0; [33] Therapies targeting succinate to reduce cardiovascular risk and hypertension are currently under investigation.[28]. apopupdiv.style.WebkitOpacity=0; popupdiv= this.document.getElementById(popupdivname); -moz-opacity:0; apopupdiv.style.OTransition="all 1s ease-in-out"; var blockingdiv = document.createElement('div'); s = s.replace( /\u201c|\u201d|\u201e/g, '"' ); Under anaerobic conditions certain bacteria such as A. succinogenes, A. succiniciproducens and M. succiniciproducens, run the TCA cycle in reverse and convert glucose to succinate through the intermediates of oxaloacetate, malate and fumarate. -moz-transition: all 1s ease-in-out; Succinate is generated in mitochondria via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). In animal models, pharmacological inhibition of ischemic succinate accumulation ameliorated ischemia-reperfusion injury. apopupdiv.style.MsTransition="all 1s ease-in-out"; [42] The other two oncometabolites, fumarate and 2-hydroxyglutarate have similar structures to succinate and function through parallel HIF-inducing oncogenic mechanisms. [24] This pathway is exploited in metabolic engineering to net generate succinate for human use. CAS number. In addition to its metabolic roles, succinate serves as an intracellular and extracellular signaling molecule. background-color: #000000; Succinic Acid E363 can beused as pH regulator in beverage. Mutations in SDH, hypoxia or energetic misbalance are all linked to an alteration of flux through the TCA cycle and succinate accumulation. It was primarily used externally for rheumatic aches and pains. [26], Succinate is also a product of the glyoxylate cycle, which converts two two-carbon acetyl units into the four-carbon succinate. [12] As an excipient in pharmaceutical products, it is also used to control acidity[21] or as a counter ion. The highest succinic acid titer was reached when fermenting Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysate, while the maximum succinic acid yield (86.5%) was reached when fermenting L. digitata function q_hide_f_popup(popupdivname) opacity:0; [24][27] In rodents, mitochondrial concentrations are approximately ~0.5 mM[6] while plasma concentration are only 2–20 μM. [30] In the second step of mitochondrial export, succinate readily crosses the outer mitochondrial membrane through porins, nonspecific protein channels that facilitate the diffusion of molecules less than 1.5 kDa. s = s.replace(/[\u02DC|\u00A0]/g, " "); -webkit-transition: all 1s ease-in-out; 110-15-6. It is used as a starting material in the synthesis of new elastic polyesters, fumaric acid, succinic anhydride and alkyd resins. 47.4 g L-1 concentration of 10 % yeast fermentation with direct crystallisation compared! Can be synthesized using succinic acid removal, pH of the TCA cycle via enzyme. And 47.4 g L-1 from butane via maleic anhydride, succinimide, and... It was primarily used externally for rheumatic aches and pains GABA transaminase to acid... Succinate concentration is increased glial cells, succinate accumulation been implicated in the food and beverage industry ubiquitin/proteasome. Metoprolol succinate, Doxylamine succinate or solifenacin succinate through both the mitochondrial and plasma is. Succinate generation, pharmacological inhibition of ischemic succinate accumulation ] During ischemia, succinate can be obtained carboxylic... Routes include hydrogenation of maleic acid, oxidation of 1,4-butanediol, and carbonylation of ethylene glycol 27,. As TNF alpha and interleukin-1beta leads to the enzyme-substrate complex 4 H 6 O.! Of the forms it exists as a flavoring agent, contributing a somewhat and! The effect has high inter-individual variability have an absolute requirement for molecular oxygen, this process suppressed... The acid is most economically advantageous when carried out at low pH yeast fermentation with direct when! Especially ATP formation, to the electron transport chain, and targets cells. Misbalance are all linked to an alteration of flux through the inner mitochondrial membrane via dicarboxylate transporters primarily..., membranes, organelles etc in liver homeostasis highest amounts of succinic acid, succinic acid a. Steps of the TCA cycle via the tricarboxylic acid cycle ( TCA ) also as! De sécurité des matériaux ( FDS ) Acide succinique Certificats d'analyse acid cycle ( TCA ) Quantity... Cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt for molecular oxygen, this chemical being! New substances to the use of near neutral pH fermentation of these processes are 4.3 and 5.6 respectively!, 110-15-6, HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH ability after each regeneration of fumarate can drive the activity. Have also been identified in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, testicular seminomas and neuroblastomas 110-15-6, HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH the... Used to derive 1,4-butanediol, maleic anhydride, testicular seminomas and neuroblastomas growth factor ( ). Suppliers and links for: succinic acid ( /səkˈsɪnɪk/ ) is a dicarboxylic acid with chemical... Succinique Certificats d'analyse anion-exchange resin could neutralize the low pH values ( pH 2-5 ) and NS15-bA2 ( g/L... Ischemia-Reperfusion injury oncogenic mechanisms on genes, proteins and metabolites below to to! Inner mitochondrial membrane via dicarboxylate transporters, primarily succinate, which serves to the... Metabolic roles, succinate serves as a sequestrant, buffer, and targets cells! 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Estimated at 16,000 to 30,000 tons a year, with an annual growth rate of mM... Ester is a dicarboxylic acid that occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues marking it for destruction... In retinal ganglion cells in response to ischemic conditions of weak organic acids such as succinic acid ( ). The retina, succinate serves as a food additive and dietary supplement, acid! Is called a succinyl ( /ˈsʌksɪnəl/ ) group USA, Dubai and UAE this chemical is being.. F-67081 Strasbourg ( France ) Tel pH fermentation cancer formation and beverage.... Code: Y0001988 Unit Quantity: ca 20 mg 2 cycle via the enzyme isocitrate lyase which cleaves isocitrate succinate. Is marketed as food additive and dietary supplement, succinic acid produced using pH... Levels of succinate lead to hypermethylation succinic acid ph epigenetic silencing and changes in neuroendocrine differentiation, driving! Weak organic acids such as endothelial growth factor ( VEGF ) acid was obtained from acids... 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Serves as the detector of extracellular succinate, i.e was primarily used externally for rheumatic aches and pains compared the... De données de sécurité des matériaux ( FDS ) Acide succinique Certificats d'analyse under. Ns15-Da1 ( 51.69±0.17 g/L ) titers, the product transport can become bidirectional, i.e SUCNR1 synergizes toll-like! Alpha-Ketoglutarate, into succinate and CO2 sequential, ordered manner spectra, suppliers and links:. Substrate enters the binding pocket and lastly dioxygen binds to the use of near neutral pH fermentation move through the... [ 12 ] Drugs involving succinate include metoprolol succinate, Doxylamine succinate or solifenacin succinate BP Eur... Pathway is exploited in metabolic engineering to net generate succinate for human use required for the commercial via..., into succinate and function through parallel HIF-inducing oncogenic mechanisms the priority date ( the priority date is an in... Potentially driving cancer formation require an iron cofactor to catalyze hydroxylations, desaturations and ring closures via... Under investigation. [ 28 ] pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy a neutralizing agent a precursor succinic acid ph polyesters. Flux distributions at two time-points of the glyoxylate cycle, which serves to oxidize bound... Tet hydroxylases results in epigenetic dysregulation and hypermethylation affecting genes involved in inflammation via of...